St Marys


In parallel with the ‘Library project’-at Park Street- this tenure uses the ‘loci’ of these seats of learning as a ‘positioning’ for the research and practical work that comes within my remit of the exploration of state space and state time.

Both ‘arenas’ are traditionally viewed as ‘loci’ of education, communication and information dissemination within and without communities, however their roles and their placement are ever-changing, historically and contemporaneously within the set parameters of state space/time.

Work produced at St. Mary’s may follow ‘hand in glove’ with that of the ‘Library project’ following the connections and parabiosis of myself as the ‘acting protagonist’ and the, sometimes, retrospective and auto-biographical aspects of my practice and role. The practical and research work may also, at times, follow the liturgical calendar and its attributes and teachings.

However spontaneous interactions and engagements with the ‘locos’ , its history and contextual positioning within and without the community will be a major source of exploration and thus extrapolation.




Playgrounds are ambiguous places or locos, encouraging the paradoxical beginnings of ‘power narratives’ through the apparent naivety of play – as perhaps Berger’s ‘shape of a pocket’ or Gramsci’s letters from the cell, and indeed the cell itself. Playgrounds are cryptic spaces, they are ‘allowed’ and encouraged to be nomadic yet they exist within the striate parameters of state space and striate parameters of state time. The ambiguity of ‘play’ can be as absurd as the protagonists, for a ‘playground’ can be a stage where any role is acted out.



State space/time, the state operates through the capture of movement and the partition of space within an allotted time specific. Similarly, the State is also concerned with striating space or building into it a hierarchical system of relations which places the occupants of each stratum at odds with those of other strata. The State is concerned chiefly with creating structures or constructs through which lines of flight can be harnessed and controlled. The State, thus, harnesses energy by creating inequalities.

One of the fundamental tasks of the State is to striate the space over which it reigns, or to utilize smooth spaces as a means of communication in the service of striated space. It is a vital concern of every State not only to vanquish nomadism but to control migrations and more generally, to establish a zone of rights over an entire “exterior,” over all flows traversing the ecumenon. If it can help it, the State does not dissociate itself from a process of capture of flows of all kinds, populations, commodities or commerce, money or capital, etc. There is still a need for fixed paths in well-defined directions, which restrict speed, regulate circulation, relativize movement, and measure in detail the relative movements of subjects and objects.



(i)            Anticipation-Anti-climax: The notice on the gate read ‘CLOSED’, the anti – climatic mood this produced and subsequent discourse that ensues, between a young child and parent, due to ‘unforeseen and unexplained’ restrictive practice. A learning curve, a lesson, an entrée into the interactivity between domestic play and its restrictions and social play and its restrictions, a crossing, of sorts, from  one stage to another.

(ii)           Chaos – Order: The whistle blows, and perhaps blows again, not all orders are instantaneous in their delivery, the tumult of play and the chaotic reverie within set boundaries and the exploration of pushing those boundaries-of which, perhaps, ignoring the first whistle may be one-comes to an ordered ‘halt’. The line-up and division into classes, and the well-structured order of rank and file, the mediated dispersal to respective areas, a crossing over, of sorts, from one stage to another, a chiasma.

(iii)          Order – Chaos: Already restricted by rank and file, ordered in locos and in genos, the subdued mood of reverence to order and status is broken by the whistle, only blown once-produces the correct response-boundaries are expected to be pushed here, within a regimented/well-ordered way. The whistle blows again and the rank and file are dispersed into the restricted/unrestricted arena of play. A crossing over of sorts, between one stage and another, an assemblage in state space/nomad space-a cryptic space and the time this marks.





In respect of conservation…!

In the case of a conversation…!

With the creator…?



Fucking cryptic space…!

Is it there yet…is it coming through…do we have a connection?

I talked to him…many times; I asked the correct questions…properly…


What for…?

Is it this…?

Is it that…?

Ci – Ca!




I believe there is such a thing as ‘social murder’, perhaps a rather naïve statement if we consider the historical and contemporary facts that emblazon our well documented existence of ‘humanity’.

However I refer not to the ‘necessity’ of war, the presupposed great social murder, that many of our leaders-past and present-decree with equal ‘volition and remorse’.

But to another, equally ‘profitable’ method of ‘social murder’, that of economy and commerce; indeed one could argue that the latter is the main protagonist in the former’s existence, for war is good business- before, during and after the ‘event’.

At best war is ‘a moral high ground’, at best-and this is a negligible statement open to many avenues of debate and discourse, in reality war is ‘territorial pissings’, driven by monetary gain and economic trends. Even the so called ‘faith wars’-past and present-supposedly fought over a more ‘spiritual and metaphysical plain’ are acted out on, and over, very definite, physical, manmade landscapes.


The term ‘murder’ legally suggests premeditation, and it would be argued by the malefactors that ‘no such’ course of thought or action was envisaged, nor intended. If we consider a small event-small on the scale of global interests- a corporate board meeting’s decision, allowed through ‘properly managed and considered local legislature’, to open a superstore in a particular area. And we could pull a line from any crime novel or TV. Drama here, and indeed from ‘real life’, if there’s no body then there’s no crime.

Social murder, without its counterpart warfare, leaves no immediate signs of death. Like a parasitic invasion the symptoms may take time to develop, undermining slowly and purposefully, the ultimate demise is inevitable, on whatever level or in any guise it appears.


I used the analogy of a ‘superstore’ earlier, purposefully, for two reasons. Firstly, with the positioning of such ‘grand’ and ‘all encompassing’ centres of trade within a community will undermine local traders, eventually they will succumb to the ‘everything under one roof’ ethos that these ‘leviathans’ deliver. This may take time, business will slowly be eroded by the ‘offers’ and ‘variety’ of the larger newcomer. Once loyal customers will be cajoled by market forces and cheaper prices, competition becomes untenable, within the immediate locale and in some cases, in the surrounding areas. With these superstores come parking areas and petrol stations, everything in one place, which may encourage others, from further afield, to forsake their local shops.

We all know this, have seen it happen and been party to it, it is hard to avoid the face of corporate trade in favour of local trade. Market forces are the key ingredient in this recipe of, what is usually, community disaster.

My second reason for using this analogy is briefly mentioned above, and that is our own personal involvement within this series of events, our role[s] in this very manmade drama.

These establishments ‘deliver what people want’, is one of the clarion calls in defence of their progeny. And of course this is true, on many levels.

And the hard sell of the constantly regenerating advertising machine is generously informing us of what we want, and moreover what we need.

This is progress.


Freedom of choice and convenience are the slogans, the cajoling rhetorical devices that are as invasive and pervasive as the advertising machine, the logo’s and brands.

In the bigger cousins of the superstores, the ‘malls’, the shopping experience becomes an all-encompassing event.

These ‘Cathedrals’ of commerce engage us in a ‘modern spiritual’ experience, they are meeting places, they are places of entertainment, they are ‘fun’ and shopping is fun.

For me these places are the epitome of all that is ‘America’ [I will elaborate on this later] they resemble the indoor ‘Theme Parks’, and the theme is ‘money’ through the concepts of ‘hyper-reality’ and ‘hyper-needs’.


In the writings of Baudrillard, Umberto Eco, et al, the terms hyper reality and simulation/ simulacrum discuss certain aspects of this. Consumerism nourishes hyper reality and vice versa, it represents the perfect opportunity to construct a made up reality which following can be used by the consumer to establish a self-image.

We communicate with each other not only with word but through our staged image. Hyper reality and the simulation has become a social demand, a social code through which we interact.

The brandings of the companies behind the logos are built on different kinds of skills depending on the company’s subject area. In addition they incorporate certain values into the logo through commercials and visual symbols, values to go along with the product.

They thereby brand or stage themselves and their product in such a way that the consumer can identify, hence not only buy the product, but adapt the image of the company and use this in the staging-process of themselves as individuals as well.

The note of hyper reality is according to Baudrillard – ‘the simulation of something which never really existed.’


In the simulation process, which is the process of hyper reality, ‘the authentic fake’ is produced as Umberto Eco explains it. In the realm of hyper reality everything is made up.

Baudrillard says that today, in a world of hyper reality- ‘Illusion is no longer possible, because the real is no longer possible’. In the sphere of hyper reality the concept of simulation rules, it’s about creating the hyperreal.

It’s not an illusion of something real and it’s not reality either. In hyper reality these two concepts don’t exist. Furthermore Baudrillard points out, that simulation is nothing but a social demand.

Hyper reality is responding to and reinforcing a postmodern, social state of mind where the staging of individuals no longer rest on a firm ideology, for example a religious foundation, but is constituted by fragments of possible images presented to the individual partly through the logos and the values attached.


So on the one hand there is the very physical, the architecture and locos, and on the other hand there is the meta-physical of the hyperreal and the simulated.

This is the state of equilibrium in which ‘consumerism’, in a neo-liberal state exists and flourishes-locally, nationally and globally.


We belong by our belongings, ‘branding’ is a physical manifestation of this, it also denotes a paradoxical bi-ownership, whereby ‘y’ belongs to ‘x’…and ‘x’ belongs to ‘y’…



This belonging however is an inclusive and exclusive gesture…

Belonging, and thus inclusion, depends on ability to afford, or purchase, belongings…

Inability to afford this process results in exclusion…a form of ‘status anxiety’ perhaps…

These are the basic integers of the economic equation that established ‘The selfish society’…

And this inclusion/exclusion could be deemed as ‘social murder’…



The theory of ‘commodity fetishism’ became the starting point for György Lukács development of ‘reification’- (Marx’s theory of reification-being the principle obstacle to class consciousness). Where ‘Reification’ is the psychological transformation of an ‘abstraction’ into a ‘concrete object’, Lukacs stated , in his ‘History and Class Consciousness’ (1923) that- “Just as the capitalist system continuously produces and reproduces itself economically on higher levels, the structure of reification progressively sinks more deeply, more fatefully, and more definitively into the consciousness of Man”. Henceforth, commodification pervaded every conscious human activity, as the growth of capitalism commodified every sphere of human activity into a product that can be bought and sold in the market.

Hence, commodity fetishism transforms the subjective, abstract aspects of economic value into objective; real things that people believe have intrinsic value. Marx said that fetishism is “the religion of sensuous appetites”.

A does not necessarily stand for Apple…


The work of the sociologist Theodor W. Adorno, and others of ‘The Frankfurt School’ described how the forms of commerce work on, and invade the human psyche; how commerce casts a person into a role not of his or her making; and how commercial forces affect the development of the psyche. In the book ‘Dialectic of Enlightenment’ (1944), Adorno and Max Horkheimer presented the Theory of the Culture Industry to describe how the human imagination (artistic, spiritual, intellectual activity) becomes commodified when it is subordinated to the “natural commercial laws” of the market.

In essence one loses one’s own self-identity and this can lead to social alienation on two levels; firstly by inclusion into this process of commodification, secondly by exclusion from the process by inability to afford the cultural goods and services that are offered. However insidious the former of these two levels of alienation is, the latter can lead to areas of behaviour that castigate and alienate even further.

To the consumer, the cultural goods and services sold in the market appear to offer the promise of a richly developed and creative individuality, yet the inherent commodification severely restricts and stunts the human psyche. Because of this continual personification of cultural roles over which the consumer exercises little control, the person becomes a ‘passive consumer’, integration complete the consumer finds they have little or no time for ‘themselves’. In personifying such cultural identities, through this assimilation, the consumer is not the active creator; individualistic creativity does not have a lasting place, and is incompatible with the ‘economic and commercial collective’.


Counter cultures, whose initial basis was to subjugate the ‘norm,’ are historically shown to be accepted and thus included within the mechanics of commodification.

The ‘selfish society’s’ clarion call of ‘get, get, get’ works only for those in a position of economic favour. It teases those who are outside the parameters of its embrace, for those just outside, those who scratch at the door of belonging and yet are fighting daily to rise above the lowest level are offered help to ‘attain’ through credit.

Those who are deemed societies ‘bottom feeders’, become the focus of the upper echelon(s), the reason and cause for ‘society’s problems’.

Those who are excluded, by economic means, who desire to be ‘included’ may pursue the ‘dream’ by whatever means possible, even adopting the conflated moral stance of those who have set the machinery of commodification in motion.



The ‘conceit’ that greets many…

One of the gravest acts of human commodification…

Physically and meta-physically…

The ‘sarcastic’ use of ‘sloganing’, from archetype to cliché, an adopted stance now…

‘Things can only get better’

‘We’re all in this together’

Et al…

The same economics and ‘spin’ that greased the wheels, and set the ‘mechanics of commodification’ in progress…

The underlying ‘conflated promise’ of ‘freedom’…

Freedom as a commodity?

Freedom as a ‘brand’?


        11a              =                   11b

Impedimenta is an ongoing project, an exploration of the workings of state space/state time, which in itself is ongoing, cyclical as the ‘origins’ of its manufacture.

Impedimenta is a beautiful word, despite its resonance in certain situations. It is a word I fell upon in a process of collection, a word that etymologically determined and informed the process of enquiry; it became both the collective ‘noun’ and the collective ‘verb’.

Impedimenta the brand…

Buy the ‘new Ford impedimenta’…

Et al…

And just as the ‘spin’ of ‘any colour you like…as long as it’s black’ widened the desire lines, and began the journey…

Offered the freedom…

My journey of collection…

Widened desire lines…


Collected impedimenta…


Social detritus…

Symbols of the human condition, manufactured worth epitomising an event, yet thrown away, or lost on the journey…


The journey in search of ‘the offered freedom’…

The manufactured dream…

Belonging through belongings…

Manufactured ‘soothing’…

From day one…

Break the nurture bond…


More state time to be productive…

To belong…

To make belongings…

In state space…


Product placement = ‘social murder’


The above two lines, etymologically, form a ‘chiasmus’ a rhetorical ‘conceit’ – a word play, a ‘game’ of sorts. In my first ‘post’ on this page I explained this in respect of my work in Bucharest, and as part of my ongoing practice. Words and word play are a major contributory factor in our dissemination of knowledge, in all areas – belief, fact and fiction.

In Bucharest ‘chiasmus’ provided a platform to discuss the philosophical questions which had been suggested by Wittgenstein, and also as a ‘vehicle’-and I choose this adjective well and with purpose-to convey the cultural changes that were demanded by the ‘state’ for economic means, as part of the ‘inclusion process’ of joining the EU.

 Game is defined as adopting goals, rules, challenges and interactions but as the philosopher, Ludwig Wittgenstein claims, games can be a misconstrued meaning of language and the mind. Because we misunderstand language, we use indirect communication, thought experiments and mind games to get a sense of one-upmanship to empower or demoralize. What extremes can we go to for feeling recognition, wanting, acceptance and achievement?

Words also form the basis of the structures of ‘state space/state time’, the manufactured framework(s) and landscape(s) that we inhabit; these are both physical and meta-physical landscapes and frameworks.


In my ‘last post’-and indeed this for some may be deemed as some ‘funerary bugle call’, I discussed briefly the changing landscapes that many inhabit today, and the hierarchical modern languages that govern these often simulated ‘new frameworks’.

We are at a place in our history were it is difficult, in many instances, to disentangle the ‘real’ from the ‘virtual’. The devices we use to interact and communicate with each other are paradoxically offering ‘ultra-inclusion’ and yet this offer immediately excludes many on economic means.

The social syndrome of ‘us and them’ has been with us since hierarchical stances emerged in our cultures, the ‘class system’ being a predicate in western established orders of this.

In ‘Impedimenta’ I proffered the concept of ‘belonging through belongings’, and in effect the aforementioned paradox of ‘ultra-inclusion/exclusion’ is a direct attribute of this concept.

I also concluded the piece with a statement on ‘product placement’ and its insidious nature at ‘level one’ of this eternal game.


The apparent nature of ‘transparency’ that is purported by this simplistic device of comfort and the ‘nurturing stance’ it adopts could be seen as quite the opposite. This product of mass produced, manufactured and surrogate comfort is probably the initial entrée into the world as many of us know it today; indeed it has become ‘de rigueur’.

Like most modern ‘accoutrements’ a service is provided by replacement of another, this is the process of manufactured society at work. At ‘level one’ however the initial move is not the choice of the ‘target individual’. This is the choice of the parent or guardian, who may have long since been aware of an alternative to their initial choice. The concept of ‘freedom’ here is predicate, the ‘freedom’ from anxiety for the infant and likewise for the parent.

 This ‘freedom by surrogacy’ not only gives the parent/guardian relief from their ‘role’ but also gives them more time to be ‘productive’ in other ways; it also produces a ‘state of reliance’ on both parties involved. This reliance however is not the natural reliance bond of parent/child-child/parent but of a stand-in, a ‘doppelgänger’- an affordable ‘state produced nanny’.

 (Insert bottle video here)

These ‘forms of reliance’ may be physical or meta-physical, or indeed an amalgam of the two, our inherent needs being swathed and supplanted by ‘substitutes’.


This initial move into reliance on surrogacy soon manifests itself in other forms as our journey across the board ‘progresses’.  This manifestation being part of the replacement process of surrogacy; with other ‘fantoccini’s’ becoming the stand-in’s.

This whole process could be regarded as ‘state one-upmanship’, a striate of economic empowerment, for it is the state economy that initiates- through production-not only the actual physical product, but also the language or striates of language that governs their placement into the social order.

Were Wittgenstein suggested that ‘misconstrued’ understanding of language can lead to gameplay, the antithesis of this is equally true and in many ways abhorrent, to understand language and deliberately subvert or misconstrue its meaning to others, not through ‘catachresis’ but through calculated and metred dissemination, the ‘power narratives’ that govern and subjugate many.

The ‘chiasmi’ and other forms of ‘word play’ have become an important part in my practice, using the devices and dynamics that are at the very core of the ‘power narratives’ that have ‘accelerated’ the commodification of us all throughout history to the present day. Indeed using the very devices that ‘misconstrue’ and ‘mislead’ enables an insight into the cyclical nature of ‘state games’, the parameters that these are played on/in and moreover the protagonists themselves.


How do we decipher or disseminate? How can we evaluate and disentangle the ‘real’ from the ‘virtual’ or the ‘deliberately misconstrued’?

For every action there is an opposite action or reaction, and, similarly, within the rhetoric of ‘power narratives’ these balancing acts emerge.



One can only decide by questioning, mere acceptance or blind faith will deliver only the staid mediocrity which has, in my opinion, become as ‘de rigueur’ as the ‘paracletes’ we hold on high in our highly manufactured society.

History has surely shown us that the ‘devices’ of the ‘power narratives’, the rhetoric, spin and ‘deliberate catachresis’ are at best ‘well misconstrued’ and ‘mismanaged’ uses of our communicative systems, at worst purely self-serving vehicles of ‘state space and state time’.

(See state of unplay – ‘the island donkey drops a dove’,



(Remembrance Sunday onwards 2015-locos St. Mary’s, Hull)


Chiasmus means ‘crossing over’, this intervention was my entrée, my introduction to both the location and to its congregation. This was a muted, silent piece, stark and simple, unobtrusive and wholly, in reverence to the occasion of remembrance, of which it was part.

In Greek mythology the act of remembrance was afforded to humankind by Mnemosyne, this gift was bestowed on Simonides by the act of ’image through disaster’.


The ‘human’ made disasters of the last century, the ‘Great Wars’ – and others, were remembered last year with a sense of ‘greater gravitas’ due to attained dates-a century has passed, indeed the process of memory is driven by numbers, in the case of war usually by the amount of deaths and casualties, and the statistics that make this information manageable in ‘state space and time’.

As I said earlier, the piece of work I produced was wholly in reverence to the ‘normal’ avenues of remembrance, stark, quiet and unobtrusive were the order of this piece and its tenure within the locos.

The piece also remained in situation for another service of remembrance, that of road fatalities. This I was pleased about due to the respect afforded to me and my work, but also due to the context of not only the ‘service’, but how this coincided with my ‘lines’ of research and ongoing practice.


Both these services of remembrance are due in part to modern mechanised progression and technical advancements, the development of mechanised objects that are adapted and adopted to fit a particular ‘circumstance’. And economy drives not only the mechanics but also the ‘circumstance’.

The production line technology, at the turn of the last century, proffered adventure and ‘freedom’ from the mundane, a means to widen the desire lines of our landscapes into roads, to meet and interact. These same production lines soon became the manufacturers of different vehicles of ‘adventure’, the ‘freedom’ they provided was a definite article, an end.


The economy of line was born out of the title, using materials of an economic nature in an economic way. The economy of line, achieved aesthetically, by making sparse, linear frameworks within the established parameters of the locos-using the established architecture and design as a physical framework to add to.

 These lines, made from unused till rolls slightly affixed to the floor, were symbolic of:

 (a) The physical boundaries that are shown to be fragile and transient historically

(b) The spiritual/meta-physical boundaries of ‘crossing over’ and remembrance.

(c) The ‘economics’ of the ‘state managed events of war and of remembrance’.

(d) The ‘scriptures’ of faith(s), the ‘archives’ that serve to teach, ‘records’ of all.

These lines formed crosses at junctures, again symbolic of the physical world but also of the meta-physical/spiritual, a crossing over-a chiasmus in the nature of the piece as well as in its nomenclature.

As with physical boundaries within a landscape and the meta-physical boundaries of ‘self’ these frameworks of lines deteriorated with wear, with physical interactions and ‘crossing overs’-interaction through transgression being a fundamental of the piece, relational aesthetics at play.

Although the piece was produced with due respect to the ‘processes of remembrance’-for both events-it also served as a ‘conveyance’ from which to question the circumstances and events that substantiate these days of remembrance.


And by using the same devices and dynamics of ‘state space and time’, those of ‘game and wordplay’ one can explore the processes involved, whether understanding on any level is attained or not.


The actual locos itself brings to the forefront the ‘well metred’ rhetoric of one established order and the historical and contemporary conflicts that have arisen in its name, the so called ‘faith wars’ that litter our landscapes and build our frameworks.



A colleague asked if after the event of ‘chiasmus’ whether I would add the names of those ‘lost’ to the scrolls, as another level or striate of remembrance.

My answer was direct and immediate, I had considered this option-in many forms- however although this piece is about people and loss, it is moreover about the apparent worthlessness of these people/souls. Whatever ‘guise’ war appears in it is good business, before, during and after the event. Our most famous war leader, our historic saviour Winston Churchill stated that war was a necessity, and that he liked war.



The piece was about remembrance, remembrance of those lost but about their anonymity and their ‘statistical persona’, a commodity of the economics of these ‘events and circumstances’. A blank record speaks much louder, I feel, than a ‘roll call’ – much louder than bombs.


This anonymity also highlights the faceless impersonality of ‘modern warfare’, and is mirrored in the acts and rhetoric of the ‘state protagonists’ in whichever established order is vocalising the ‘power narratives’. The sullen faced oration at the loss of human life is countered by the behind the scenes trade in arms, and the inherent urge of one-upmanship to balance archaic differences and ‘state peccadillos’. War is rarely fought on behalf of the common man/woman, only by them.


The unseen pieces of paper, or information that are passed around the corridors of power are blank or non-existent to the masses, dispatches that concern the populous are dispatched many years after the event, purposefully.

As aforementioned the word play of ’chiasmus’ was a predicate in its execution, both ‘services of remembrance’ it served were from the same root cause and etymological definition(s).

The economy of line the duplicitous sister of the line of economy, the devices of ‘spin’ and deliberate ‘misconstrued language’ used and chosen with the same exactitude as those of the ‘state protagonists’.

The line(s) of economy, the mechanised assembly lines that proffered ‘freedom’ through their product at the turn of the last century have become a mainstay of our Neo-Liberal culture and society, the process of surrogacy the same, service replacement by the product.

When what were probably the first ‘fantoccini’s’ to roll off these production lines instilled themselves in the mass psyche as ‘needed objects’, the process of manufactured surrogacy proliferated. The ‘model T’ offered not only a replacement scenario but also an added enrichment to life, the proffered freedom already mentioned-to these ‘modern times’.

The whole process of service replacement and surrogacy became the basis of ‘Chiasmus-Bucharest’, the social and cultural changes demanded by the state of much of the populous were intrinsic to EU entry. This was highlighted in the banning of horses and donkeys from most major roads and highways-removing for many their mode of transport and their means of existence-in favour of motorised vehicles.

‘Fordism to Sloanism’ became evident in my stay in Bucharest, the new vehicles were not paper or the staid grey/black of former communist production but ‘modern models’, these part of the new trade allegiances with the biggest investor France-new production line facilities already in situ and many more in the pipeline.

This process of surrogacy and replacement not only alienated and excluded many by economic means but also highlighted the inherent cultural divides of the nation, the bucolic and nomadic lifestyle-the natural space and time-becoming an embarrassment to those who wished to be seen as ‘modern’, ‘progressive’ and ‘contemporary’.

The rhetoric, spin and deliberate catachresis that accompanied these events and circumstances, as shown above in three etymological examples, is well metred and pointed  towards the ‘power narratives at play’ , the added bonus to all those ‘included’ are the promised economic benefits of both EU adoption and the gift of ‘Black Gold’ that had been discovered.

To be continued…

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